Infectious Disease and Immunology 中文 (CN version)

Infectious Disease

Our Infectious Disease team provides world class services to accelerate the drug discovery process from lead finding to PCC nomination.


The outstanding infrastructure and instrumentation allows our customers to conduct high quality research both in vitro and in vivo.

  • BSL-2 facilities (>3,000 ft2), antiviral & antibacterial
  • ABSL-2 facilities (~3,000 ft2, 6 animal rooms, holding capacity of 5,000 rodents, ALAAAC accredited), antiviral & antibacterial
  • State-of-art instrumentation (e.g. COBAS system, POD810)

Key Antiviral Services

  • In vitro research platforms
    • Antiviral services: Cell-based and biochemical assays for HBV, HCV, RSV, influenza, HIV, HSV, CMV, HRV, CV and EV71 for compound screening and profiling, resistance characterization, MOA and HTS
    • Clinical: Genotyping, phenotyping and VLD for HCV and HBV clinical trials; genotyping for RSV clinical trials
  • In vivo models
    • HDI model for HBV production, humanized liver model for HBV infection, pulmonary infection models for RSV and influenza virus, ocular infection model for HSV


  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
    • Screening: HepG2.2.15, DE19 and DES19 cell lines with dot blot, qPCR and ELISA
    • Profiling: drug-resistance, genotype A/B/C, and clinical isolate construction and transient transfection; drug combination, serum shift, MOA
    • Ex vivo infectious system: primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from humanized mice
    • In vivo models: HDI model for HBV production, humanized liver model for HBV infection with determinations of viral DNAs, RNAs and proteins in plasma and liver and liver enzymes
    • Clinical support: VL, genotyping and phenotyping
    • Biochemistry: capsid assembly quenching assay, core protein expression and purification
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
    • Screening: stable and transient replicons, and HCVcc with luciferase reporter and qPCR
    • Profiling: drug resistance, genotypic spectrum, drug combination and serum shift
    • Clinical support: VL, genotyping and phenotyping
    • Biochemistry: viral enzymes
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
    • Screening: RSV A and B strains with CPE
    • Profiling: drug resistance, genotypic spectrum, drug combination and serum shift
    • In vivo model: mouse pulmonary infection with VL plaque assay
    • Clinical support: VL, genotyping
    • MOA: F protein-mediated cell fusion
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • HIV CPE assay in a subcontract lab
    • Viral enzymes
  • Influenza virus (IFV)
    • Screening/profiling: a mini panel of H1N1, H3N2 and IFV B strains with CPE, plaque and qPCR; drug resistance
    • In vivo model: mouse pulmonary infection with mortality and VL titration
    • Biochemistry: neuraminidase, hemagglutinin
    • Viral protein and replication complex purification from infected hen eggs
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
    • Screening/profiling: HSV-1 and HSV-2, CPE and reporter assays
    • In vivo model: mouse ocular latent infection and activation
    • Ex vivo model: isolation and cultivation of latently infected ganglia neurons
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
    • Screening: CPE and reporter assays
  • Picornaviruses
    • Human rhinovirus (HRV): mini panel of HRV strains, CPE assay
    • Enterovirus 71 (EV71, hand-foot-mouth disease): CPE, mouse lethal and VL qPCR models
    • Coxsackie virus (CV): A16 and B3, CPE assay, mouse infection model with lethal and VL titration

Key Antibacterial Capabilities

  • In vitro
    • MIC screening
    • MBC, standard and simplified (coupled with MIC)
    • Serum and BPP shift assay
    • Profiling of antibacterial lead compounds
    • Time-kill curve and post-antibiotic effect
    • Synergy/potentiation assay
    • Frequency of resistance
    • Isolation of spontaneous resistant mutant
    • Drug-induced resistant mutation, isolation & characterization
    • Whole-genome sequencing & mapping of mutations
    • PCR sequencing of target genes
    • Reconstruction of resistant mutations
    • Enzymatic assays
    • Macromolecular labeling
    • Anaerobic bacteria; surrogate mycobacterium spp. for TB
  • In vivo (pharmacology, pathology and efficacy studies)
    • Superficial skin infection, localized deep-thigh infection, systemic infection and peritonitis infection
    • Pulmonary infection: Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • Peritonitis infection: Escherichia coli & Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Gastrointestinal infection: Clostridium difficile
    • Systemic infection: Streptococcus suis
    • Helicobacter pylori: persistent upper gastrointestinal infection in mice and Mongolian gerbil
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (subcontracted)
    • In vivo antibiotic resistant study, isolation & characterization of resistant mutants
  • Integrated services
    • Lead development & optimization: medicinal chemistry, microbiology and biochemistry, SAR study, MOA & MOR study, counter screening (cytotoxicity, hERG, CYP, transporters etc), ADME/PK study, in vivo efficacy/PD study, toxicology study; safety assessment,
    • IND package & filing

Vaccine & Biologics Services

  • In vitro
    • Vaccine development (antiviral & antibacterial)
    • In vitro infectivity assays
    • Formulation, microbiological & mycoplasma testing, stability assay
  • In vivo
    • Virulence assays
    • Immunogenicity assays
    • Efficacy assays

Molecular & Microbiology Testing

  • qPCR, DNA sequencing
  • CLIA-certified clinical virology support
  • Clinical microbiology
  • Microbiological & virological test


Our Immunology and Inflammation group provides a variety of in vitro assays and in vivo models in the field of immunology/inflammation. We target major inflammatory pathways including Th1, Th2, and Th17-mediated disease models. We can customize the study design to your specifications and provide high quality integrated service for efficacy evaluation and mechanism of action research.

Analysis of CD4+  T Cell Differentiation Pathways by Intracellular Staining


In Vitro and Ex Vivo Assays

  • T-cell activation & function
    • T cell proliferation/activation assays
    • Th1/ Th2/ Th17/ Treg skewing assays
    • Cytokine assays
  • B-cell activation & function
    • B cell activation/proliferation via TLR, CD40, BCR pathways
    • Antibody/isotype analysis

In Vivo Models

  • Autoimmune arthritis
    • Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice
    • Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in Lewis rats
    • Adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) in Lewis rats
  • Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)
    • MOG-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice
    • MBP-induced EAE in Lewis rats
    • PLP-induced relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice
  • OVA Induced allergic asthma
    • OVA-induced asthma in BALB/c mice
  • Psoriasis
    • Imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice
  • Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)
    • Oxazolone-induced DTH in mice
    • DNFB-induced DTH in mice and rats
  • ConA-induced cytokine models in mice and rats